The first thing that comes to mind when discussing the tax system in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the complexity of the regulations governing the practical implementation of tax laws. This complexity stems from constitutional provisions that regulate the jurisdiction of institutions at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina, entities, or even cantonal authorities. Therefore, for a better understanding, it is essential to make a clear distinction between direct taxes (income of individuals, profit of legal entities, property) and indirect taxes (VAT, excise taxes).
The need for management contracts arises when an employer needs to arrange for a relationship beyond that of one with a simple employee – one with an individual performing managerial or supervisory tasks. Therefore, the relevant labor laws (in the Federation of Bosnia & Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, and Brcko District of Bosnia & Herzegovina) introduce management contracts that offer an alternative for the employer to conclude an agreement with a manager without establishing actual employment. The aim is for a more flexible arrangement of said business relationship or established employment which is absolutely subject to the provisions of the relevant labor laws.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is located in the so-called "Western Balkans" region, borders the EU, and has an area of 51,209 km2. Its highly favorable geographical location for harnessing energy potentials has positioned B&H as the only country in the surrounding area with a significant surplus in exporting electrical energy. The water potential is represented by a large number of rivers suitable for building hydroelectric power plants, and substantial potential exists in the areas of wind energy (due to the position of the Dinaric mountain range) and solar energy (averaging over 2000 sunny hours per year).
The banking system of Bosnia and Herzegovina incorporates the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, commercial banks, and other financial institutions. The Central Bank defines and controls the implementation of the monetary policy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and assists and maintains appropriate payment and accounting systems. It also coordinates the activities of the banking agencies of the B&H entities (hereinafter: regulators), which are responsible for issuing licenses for the operation and supervision of banks.
Despite entering the corporate lexicon back in 2004, the concept of ESG (Environmental, Social, Governance) remained relatively obscure for over a decade. However, with the intensification of discussions around global warming, ESG has become a significant part of the conversation and a focal point for today's companies.
According to Ibrahimovic & Co Managing Partner Adi Ibrahimovic, “the EU’s engagement with Bosnia and Herzegovina has gone through sporadic periods of intensifying cooperation and uncertain situations,” leading Dimitrijevic & Partners Partner Davorin Marinkovic to summarize the current status as: “frankly speaking, the public perception is that nobody actually knows.”